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About Translation Advice to beginning translators, definitions, translation tools, resources, payment boards. American Translators Association ATA : ATA certifies translators in specific language pairs from or into English through a three-hour, open book proctored exam given throughout the year in cities around the country.
California Court Interpreters Program : This website offers a variety of resources for those interested in legal interpreting. Contact them via email at ncitrp u. Washington State Court Interpreter Certification : This site explains the requirements for Washington State Court Interpreter Certification and provides resources for self-study and terminology development. You may also contact the Administrator for the Courts, P. The American Translators Association provides helpful information about translation and interpretation and how to find the right translator and interpreter for your needs.
Interpreting — Getting It Right. Translation — Buying a Non-Commodity. The ATA has helped to develop nationwide standards for translation and interpretation. Browse the resources below to find more information. More resources, laws, discussions and presentations.
Interpreter Education Online — Online Language-Specific Training for Interpreters : Interpreter Education Online provides language-specific and instructor-mentored training programs for legal and healthcare interpreters. She also dedicates one section of her blog to translation tools with step-by-step guides to using popular CAT tools, such as SDL Trados.
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Share your recommendations with us! People-powered translation at scale. Gengo provides fast, affordable and quality translations by native speakers located worldwide. Seven sites and blogs every freelance translator should read by Gengo June 6, Thoughts on Translation Featuring articles, podcasts, and videos covering languages, translation and interpreting, this blog won ProZ. Translation Times Written by twin sisters Judy and Dagmar Jenner who are translators and interpreters in multiple languages, this blog offers practical advice on rate negotiations and cancellation policy, plus tips for professional development.
Translation Rules Created by the author of the book Translation Rules: 40 ways to attract clients, stay focused, and find success as a freelance translator , this blog covers a variety of topics that can resonate with and benefit freelance translators and language professionals.
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Speaking of Translation Featuring audio files, this blog is run by two translation and localization experts who address issues about being a freelancer and discuss different topics related to the language industry. Between Translations A blog by German to English translator Jayne Fox, Between Translations is a source full of useful articles for both novice and experienced translators alike — from tips on pricing your translation services to tips on translating for a global audience.
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Want to become a Gengo translator? Modern translation meets with opposition from some traditionalists. In English, some readers prefer the Authorized King James Version of the Bible to modern translations, and Shakespeare in the original of c. An opposite process involves translating modern literature into classical languages, for the purpose of extensive reading for examples, see " List of Latin translations of modern literature ". Views on the possibility of satisfactorily translating poetry show a broad spectrum, depending largely on the degree of latitude to be granted the translator in regard to a poem's formal features rhythm, rhyme, verse form, etc.
Douglas Hofstadter , in his book, Le Ton beau de Marot , argued that a good translation of a poem must convey as much as possible not only of its literal meaning but also of its form and structure meter, rhyme or alliteration scheme, etc. The Russian -born linguist and semiotician Roman Jakobson , however, had in his paper " On Linguistic Aspects of Translation ", declared that "poetry by definition [is] untranslatable".
Vladimir Nabokov , another Russian-born author, took a view similar to Jakobson's.
He considered rhymed, metrical, versed poetry to be in principle untranslatable and therefore rendered his English translation of Alexander Pushkin 's Eugene Onegin in prose. Hofstadter, in Le Ton beau de Marot , criticized Nabokov's attitude toward verse translation. In Hofstadter published his own translation of Eugene Onegin , in verse form. Gregory Hays, in the course of discussing Roman adapted translations of ancient Greek literature , makes approving reference to some views on the translating of poetry expressed by David Bellos , an accomplished French-to-English translator.
Hays writes:. A translation is an assemblage of words, and as such it can contain as much or as little poetry as any other such assemblage. Book-title translations can be either descriptive or symbolic. Such symbolic book titles usually indicate the theme, issues, or atmosphere of the work. When translators are working with long book titles, the translated titles are often shorter and indicate the theme of the book. The translation of plays poses many problems such as the added element of actors, speech duration, translation literalness, and the relationship between the arts of drama and acting.
Successful play translators are able to create language that allows the actor and the playwright to work together effectively. Audiences in Shakespeare's time were more accustomed than modern playgoers to actors having longer stage time. In translating Chinese literature, translators struggle to find true fidelity in translating into the target language.
In The Poem Behind the Poem , Barnstone argues that poetry "can't be made to sing through a mathematics that doesn't factor in the creativity of the translator". A notable piece of work translated into English is the Wen Xuan , an anthology representative of major works of Chinese literature. Translating this work requires a high knowledge of the genres presented in the book, such as poetic forms, various prose types including memorials, letters, proclamations, praise poems, edicts, and historical, philosophical and political disquisitions, threnodies and laments for the dead, and examination essays.
Thus the literary translator must be familiar with the writings, lives, and thought of a large number of its authors, making the Wen Xuan one of the most difficult literary works to translate.
Translation of a text that is sung in vocal music for the purpose of singing in another language—sometimes called "singing translation"—is closely linked to translation of poetry because most vocal music , at least in the Western tradition, is set to verse , especially verse in regular patterns with rhyme. Since the late 19th century, musical setting of prose and free verse has also been practiced in some art music , though popular music tends to remain conservative in its retention of stanzaic forms with or without refrains. A rudimentary example of translating poetry for singing is church hymns , such as the German chorales translated into English by Catherine Winkworth.
Translation of sung texts is generally much more restrictive than translation of poetry, because in the former there is little or no freedom to choose between a versified translation and a translation that dispenses with verse structure. One might modify or omit rhyme in a singing translation, but the assignment of syllables to specific notes in the original musical setting places great challenges on the translator.
There is the option in prose sung texts, less so in verse, of adding or deleting a syllable here and there by subdividing or combining notes, respectively, but even with prose the process is almost like strict verse translation because of the need to stick as closely as possible to the original prosody of the sung melodic line.
A sung translation may be considerably or completely different from the original, thus resulting in a contrafactum. Translations of sung texts—whether of the above type meant to be sung or of a more or less literal type meant to be read—are also used as aids to audiences, singers and conductors, when a work is being sung in a language not known to them. The most familiar types are translations presented as subtitles or surtitles projected during opera performances, those inserted into concert programs, and those that accompany commercial audio CDs of vocal music.
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In addition, professional and amateur singers often sing works in languages they do not know or do not know well , and translations are then used to enable them to understand the meaning of the words they are singing. An important role in history has been played by translation of religious texts. Such translations may be influenced by tension between the text and the religious values the translators wish to convey.
For example, Buddhist monks who translated the Indian sutras into Chinese occasionally adjusted their translations to better reflect China 's distinct culture , emphasizing notions such as filial piety. One of the first recorded instances of translation in the West was the rendering of the Old Testament into Greek in the 3rd century BCE. The translation is known as the " Septuagint ", a name that refers to the supposedly seventy translators seventy-two, in some versions who were commissioned to translate the Bible at Alexandria , Egypt.
According to legend, each translator worked in solitary confinement in his own cell, and, according to legend, all seventy versions proved identical.
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The Septuagint became the source text for later translations into many languages, including Latin , Coptic , Armenian and Georgian. Still considered one of the greatest translators in history, for having rendered the Bible into Latin , is Jerome — C. For centuries the Roman Catholic Church used his translation known as the Vulgate , though even this translation stirred controversy. By contrast with Jerome's contemporary, Augustine of Hippo — C.
Jerome's colorful Vulgate translation of the Bible includes some crucial instances of "overdetermination". For example, Isaiah 's prophecy announcing that the Savior will be born of a virgin, uses the word ' almah , which is also used to describe the dancing girls at Solomon 's court, and simply means young and nubile. Pope Francis has suggested that the phrase "lead us not into temptation", in the Lord's Prayer found in the Gospels of Matthew the first Gospel, written c. Higgins  in showed that among the earliest Christian authors, the understanding and even the text of this devotional verse underwent considerable changes.
These ancient writers suggest that, even if the Greek and Latin texts are left unmodified, something like "do not let us fall" could be an acceptable English rendering.
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Higgins cited Tertullian , the earliest of the Latin Church Fathers c. A later author, Ambrose C. Augustine of Hippo — , familiar with Jerome's Latin Vulgate rendering, observed that "many people In C. The periods preceding and contemporary with the Protestant Reformation saw translations of the Bible into vernacular local European languages—a development that contributed to Western Christianity 's split into Roman Catholicism and Protestantism over disparities between Catholic and Protestant renderings of crucial words and passages and due to a Protestant-perceived need to reform the Roman Catholic Church.
Lasting effects on the religions, cultures, and languages of their respective countries were exerted by such Bible translations as Martin Luther 's into German the New Testament , , Jakub Wujek 's into Polish , as revised by the Jesuits , and William Tyndale 's New Testament, and revisions and the King James Version into English Efforts to translate the Bible into English had their martyrs. William Tyndale c.
Debate and religious schism over different translations of religious texts continue, as demonstrated by, for example, the King James Only movement. Such fallibility of the translation process has contributed to the Islamic world's ambivalence about translating the Quran also spelled Koran from the original Arabic , as received by the prophet Muhammad from Allah God through the angel Gabriel incrementally between and C.
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